PILLAR I:: PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST - DEVELOPING HUMAN AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
1.Increase Primary school enrolment and completion rate to 100% & literacy
rate to 90% .
2.Increase Higher Education coverage from 7% to 12 %, and increase no. of PhD's from 7,000 to 15,000 .
3.Improve Primary and Secondary Gender Parity Index to 1, and increase female workforce participation rate from 24% to 45% Increase proportion of population with access to improved sanitation from 48% to 90% .
4.Reduce infant mortality rate from 74 to less than 40 (per 1000 births) and reduce maternal mortality rate from 276 to less than 140 (per 1000 births).
5.Reduce the incidence/prevalence of Hepatitis, Diahorrea, Diabetes and Heart Disease by 50% .
6.Pakistan will be World Champions in 2 sports and win at least 25 medals in the Asian games.
Pakistan Vision 2025 seeks a society in which every citizen has the opportunity to transform their quality of life. This requires strengthening human and social capital, which will allow the population to optimally contribute to and effectively benefit from economic growth. Pakistan lags far behind its peers in areas like education, health and social development. The UNDP Human Development Report 2013 has ranked Pakistan at 146th out of 187 countries on the HDI ranking, which measures health, education and standard of living.
Overcoming this deficit is the foremost priority of Vision 2025. Since human and social capital development is a prerequisite for all other development it is the very first of our seven pillars. Recognizing the size and scale of this endeavour, we conceive a very significant increase in resource allocation, and quantum improvement in the quality of service delivery through good governance and innovation.
Pakistan Vision 2025 'Performance Assurance Units' for each of the areas identified below will be formed to provide oversight and monitor progress. These units will be part of the 'Pakistan Vision 2025 Secretariat', as referred to in the concluding chapter.
Pakistan Vision 2025 aims at substantial expansion in levels of education as well as improvements in the quality of education. We target public expenditure on education to reach 4% of GDP by 2018.
Pakistan ranks 113th out of 120 countries in UNESCO's Education for All Education Development Index. Pakistan's literacy rate (57%) lags well behind the country's neighbours. This proportion also includes those who could only write their names. Literacy rate in rural areas of Pakistan is even lower at 50%. Pakistan has low net enrolment ratios at all three levels – primary, secondary and tertiary – with a much lower female enrolment rate as compared to males. When we move from primary to secondary and tertiary levels, enrolment ratios decrease sharply. Pakistan experiences high pupil-teacher ratios, 40 at the primary level and 42 at the secondary level. Pakistan has the world's second highest out-of-school population of children. Public sector expenditure on education is barely 2% of GDP. This is compounded by insufficient trained teachers and their absenteeism, and weak governance resulting in the poor quality of public schooling.
Education development will be led by the provinces as it is a devolved function, however the Federal Government will play the role of a catalyst in partnership with the provinces to transform the education system in the country. with support from the federal government. Government at all levels will ensure that individuals are able to pursue their economic, social, and intellectual objectives in the best possible way. The provincial governments are committed to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals for education. In order to achieve these goals the provincial governments are determined to increase their education budgets significantly. The Federal Government will not only help them in achieving MDGs at provincial levels but also perform an active role in reducing educational inequities across the four provinces. This will increase geographic and economic mobility within the country thus strengthening national spirit and solidarity.
Comprehensive reforms, comprising of detailed actions in curriculum, pedagogy, technology, governance, assessment as well as social and economic relevance will be made in the educational system to improve the quality of public schooling. These reforms will ensure that the educational system helps individuals in acquiring/sharpening of creative and analytical abilities and problem solving skills, inculcates ethics and values, creates the appreciation of civil rights and civic responsibilities, promotes health and well-being, and encourages the pursuit of economic prosperity. They aim to increase curiosity, critical thinking and innovation thus shifting the focus of education from memorization to critical learning and creating a bright future through enterprise, creativity and ethics. This will align the educational system with the national development agenda.
Co-curricular activities will be encouraged in schools to produce well rounded individuals. The relevance of the curriculum to our development needs will be improved and efforts will be made to reduce the dropout rate. Modernized teaching methods will be adopted, including the use of emerging technologies for educational purposes such as e-education, mobile-education and online distance learning as the paradigm of literacy shifts from pen to computers and tablets. Stronger governance will help to reduce absenteeism of faculty and improve the quality of public schooling. Special efforts will be made to increase the enrolment of girls. This includes provision of female teachers, and necessary physical factors (e.g. boundary walls and adequate toilets in girls' schools). Global languages will be introduced in schools to prepare students to take their place in a globalized world.
To achieve the objective of developing a knowledge economy, we target a sizeable increase in public expenditure on higher education currently from 0.2% of GDP to 1.4% of GDP and significant expansion in higher education enrolment currently from 1.5 million to 5 million.
Knowledge has become the key driver for socioeconomic development in the globalized world. To make progress and survive competitively, we will increase investment significantly in human resources (software) at the higher education level so that they can play a vital role in development of a knowledge-economy in the highly competitive global environment. Apart from improving the quality of public institutions and macroeconomic policies, the main driver will be the skilled and innovative workforce and physical and electronic connectivity.
The development of knowledge-economy requires high quality education and responsiveness to a rapidly-changing global environment. We will take advantage of a relatively young population of the country to realize the demographic dividend by taking a number of specific initiatives to depart from our current elite phase into a mass higher education phase in order to enhance collective competitiveness in the long run. Firstly, we will reform and reorganize the traditional Western system of higher education that revolves around major department-oriented education. We will reorganize the current traditional Western system of higher education into a fusion of structure of academic departments to create new learning, research, and knowledge. Secondly, we will develop smart campus systems to facilitate instant networking among campuses to improve the learning environment which will allow sharing information and knowledge among institutions. Thirdly, we will build a worldwide education & research network of universities which will allow institutions to initiate research through government and the private sector focused support enabling them to build an international partnership program. Fourthly, we will create a "Fund for University Job Creation" to facilitate the relationship between professors and students and to develop linkages between higher education market and the labour market. Fifthly, we will promote customized curriculum in the universities and tailored academic degree programmes to respond to the demand of industry and to bridge the gap between what universities teach and what businesses and industry need.
Investment in Higher Education will be aligned in accordance with our sectoral priorities as well as the overall development strategy outlined in this document, which has a primary focus on improving productivity. Accordingly, we will invest significantly in research and development (R&D) in agricultural universities to realize the increased productivity foreseen in the agriculture sector. Similarly, to boost productivity and value addition in the manufacturing sector, investment in science, technology, engineering, textile and architecture/design universities will be increased, to cater to the increased demand for skilled human resource in this sector. The country's business management, medical, social sciences, arts & humanities and ICT institutions have a huge role to play in providing adequately skilled human capital to boost productivity in the services sector. We will accordingly increase investment in these areas as well as create incentives for the private education sector to play its part.
Apart from establishing new universities, in particular world class technology and engineering institutes, we will improve the quality of existing engineering and technology universities and create models with a focus on quality research. To achieve the objective of developing a knowledge-economy, we target a sizeable increase in public expenditure on higher education currently from 0.2% of GDP to 1.4% of GDP and significant expansion in higher education enrolment currently from 1.5 million to 5 million, increase in the number of PhD's in the country from 7000 to 15000 and a doubling of the number of degree awarding institutions currently from 156 to 300 by 2025. A university campus shall be established in each district and online programmes shall be strengthened to provide greater access to higher education.
Population and Health
Health is pivotal to economic and social development. It along with education defines the human capital of a nation. With compromised health it is hard to think of accelerated growth. For realizing high and inclusive economic growth, the people must be healthy.
Pakistan's health indicators severely fall short of the required levels. Per capita expenditure on health is very low in Pakistan, and in the last eleven years has not increased significantly. In 2011 for example, public health spending in Pakistan was less than 0.5 percent of the GDP. Additionally weak management systems and poor governance have resulted in a significant amount of this spending being wasted. Developed countries on the other hand, spend more on health in terms of GDP percentage and per capita expenditure. For example, Pakistan is spending US$ 29.7 per person while Malaysia and Turkey are spending US$ 346 and US$ 696 respectively.
Declines in infant and child mortality rates have been far slower than in neighbouring countries. Pakistan's maternal mortality rates are also higher than those of other countries in the region. Pakistan also has the highest population growth rate among all SAARC countries.
Pakistan has one of the lowest doctors, dentists and paramedics to population ratios. Paramedics such as nurses, lady health visitors and midwives play a vital role in keeping a population healthy. The percentage of mothers attended to by skilled health staff during childbirth is 43% in Pakistan, while it is 95% in Malaysia and Turkey. Multiple other factors such as access to improved drinking water, food and sanitation contribute to the health of the people. 44% of Pakistani children under the age of five suffer from chronic malnutrition and only 47.4% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities. Comparatively only 5% of the population in Malaysia and Turkey is undernourished and 90% has access to improved sanitation facilities.
Moreover, rural populations suffer from numerous health issues due to multiple reasons, e.g. a lack of education, awareness, infrastructure, health facilities and poverty. Statistics show that there is a significant gap between health facilities and awareness in urban and rural Pakistan.
We will develop a shared understanding of the health value chain in partnership with provinces as well as with the general public. Supplemented with a functioning information system, this understanding will help plan, monitor, and evaluate the impact of infrastructure (water and sanitation), hygiene, prenatal and postnatal treatments, food and diet, preventive health care, primary healthcare, drug regulation, and population control on health outcomes of people. The emphasis will be to work with provinces on access to healthcare and ensuring a minimum level of service delivery throughout the country. Pakistan plans to enhance its spending in the health sector to 3% of the GDP.
Efforts will focus on strengthening primary care with necessary back up support in rural areas where all health outlets will function as a focal point for control of communicable diseases and family planning services. Stronger governance will improve the efficiency of public health sector spending. Coordination of health policies among the provinces and with the centre would be strengthened. Paramedical staff will be increased to widen the coverage of healthcare spending. Key steps to achieving health targets include; expansion of the Lady Health Workers program to target poor female patients; efforts to bring fertility rates to levels consistent with maternal health; strengthening of primary care with backup support in rural areas; training and placement of skilled personnel including women medical officers in BHUs/RHCs for family planning; establishment of health emergency surveillance and response system; implementation of a national plan for vaccinations and establishing a Health Information and Disease Surveillance System. Micro health insurance schemes would be made part of existing social safety nets to encourage accessing healthcare.
Population awareness campaigns on disease prevention will lower incidence and prevalence of preventable diseases. Hepatitis and cancer will be key therapeutic areas for capacity building. The pharmaceutical industry will be encouraged to provide innovative and affordable solutions to patients. E-health and m-health will be leveraged to provide better access to quality medical advice. Geriatric care facilities will be enhanced to serve old age patients. Hospital waste management practices will be improved to have minimal environmental impact.
Pakistan Vision 2025 aims to channelize and streamline the energies of Pakistan's large youth population and realize their immense economic potential. A large set of Pakistani youth is dissatisfied, frustrated and in a state of disarray due to low education levels and large scale unemployment. This has led to serious social problems including drug abuse, crime, mental disorder, terrorism and religious fanaticism.
Pakistan's youth bulge can drive innovation and entrepreneurship. The Government of Pakistan is committed to addressing this situation through major investment in youth.
Under the Prime Minister's Youth Program the government is providing young people skills training and access to finance so they can startup businesses. Youth entrepreneurships shall be further promoted. Establishment of youth hostels across the country will promote travel and national integration. Internships and job counseling will help youth transition to work life. Skills development institutes will be set up and madrasa education will be mainstreamed. Career counselling of students will help them transition into professional life. Vocational and technical training centres will improve youth employability. A network of sports grounds and centers for extra-curricular activities will be built to give youth a constructive outlet for their energies. Efforts to eradicate drugs and narcotics shall be strengthened.
Gender Equality and Women's Development
No nation can develop by keeping half of its population outside the development cycle. Pakistan Vision 2025 focuses on ending the discrimination faced by women, and providing an enabling environment for them to realize their full potential and make their contribution to the socio-economic growth of the country. We fully realize that gender equity and women's development hinges very strongly on a woman's independence to pursue economic growth and exercise her life choices freely. Pakistan ranks 123rd in the world on the Gender Development Index, even lower than its Human Development Index ranking, indicating that the access to opportunities, resources and benefits between men and women are skewed. The legislative framework to protect women's rights shall be strengthened and enforcement machinery will be made gender sensitive to improve implementation. Practices based on gender discriminatory cultural patterns will be discouraged. To increase women's participation in decision making, affirmative action will be taken in all public spheres. Women will be protected from harassment at work through strict enforcement of the legislation. Economic empowerment of women through ensuring access to education and enterprise shall be promoted. Day-cares will be provided at offices to facilitate women and enable them to work even after marriage.
Inclusion of Vulnerable Segments
Pakistan Vision 2025 seeks a just and equitable society in Pakistan where vulnerable and marginalized segments of the society would be mainstreamed. Vulnerable segments will be protected and encouraged by revamping and expanding the social protection system and social safety nets. Article 38 of the constitution of Pakistan would be implemented in letter and spirit. This entails the following: effective implementation of Plans of Action for Children; promotion of an inclusive education system for special children; enforcement of special quota in education and employment for non-Muslims and persons with special needs; encouraging sports activities for persons with disabilities; judicious utilization of Pakistan Bait-ul-maal and Zakat funds; eradication of beggary and special schemes for senior citizens to ensure their rights and make them socially and economically productive.
Interfaith Harmony and Religious Diversity
Pakistan Vision 2025 recognizes a dire need to spread the message of acceptance and sharing among followers of all religions and sects for peace and development in the country. Islam is a religion of peace and harmony. Unfortunately some elements have misinterpreted it to cause divisions among society. Vision 2025 conceptualizes a Pakistan that moves past any negative narrative to one that is rich in regional culture and a harmonious mix of voices that have long been silenced. Pakistan Vision 2025 shares the Quaid's vision of a country where "You may belong to any religion or caste or creed, that has nothing to do with the business of the state". Opportunities for interfaith dialogue will be promoted. An apex body, in consultation with religious leaders, will be established to mainstream madrasas and update their curriculum to meet new challenges. Discriminatory laws will be reviewed, and misuse of the blasphemy law prevented. Immediate action will be taken against those promoting intolerance, and a reporting mechanism developed for cases of discrimination. Emphasis will be placed on nation building that transcends religious and sectarian divides. Hate speech will be banned and strict action will be taken against offenders.
Art, Culture & Heritage
Pakistan Vision 2025 recognizes culture as a vibrant potential sector of national integration and development. Pakistan lacks an adequate institutional structure for cultural promotion and development despite having rich cultural treasures. Steps will be taken for the proper projection and propagation of cultural diversity in Pakistan. Culture will be employed as a tool for national development, cultural diplomacy and socio economic development. Intangible and tangible culture, including national heritage sites will be promoted, protected, preserved and projected. Cultural information will be added to school curricula. Pakistani culture centres will be set up in major countries of the world.
The PNCA, LokVirsa and private cultural institutes will be strengthened by enhancing technical capabilities, infrastructure and funding. Institutes will be established for artists and artisans to hone and market their skills. Master artisans and leading musicians will be recognized as national treasures.
Pakistan Vision 2025 recognizes the inherent potential of Pakistani people to excel in sports, and sees it as a great opportunity to develop a healthy nation and curb militancy and violence. Sports also help in revenue generation and tourism. We want to see Pakistan back on the podium in Asian and Olympic games.Over the years our sporting standards have eroded. The biggest hurdle in the promotion of this potential has been lack of professionalism, inadequate infrastructure and poor facilities at the grass roots level.
Creating a network of sports stadiums at the tehsil level, provision of sports facilities in educational institutions and housing societies, and encouragement through youth festivals can help raise our game. The government will partner with the private sector and NGOs to help develop sports infrastructure. The government will also play its role in strengthening sports bodies/federations and coordinating their efforts to promote professionalism, merit and transparency.
Ethical and Values Driven Society
Pakistan Vision 2025 seeks a society with strong ethical and moral values. Strong ethics and values provide the necessary software for development, without which physical infrastructure is just reduced to brick and mortar. Our vision of development is not just about GDP, GNP and dollars. We also seek a human society where human dignity is respected and high social capital is generated through TRUST. Character building will be a key component of education at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Instilling high ethical standards will help root out corruption, strengthen governance and improve economic efficiency. Business ethics and health ethics will be key focus areas. Local community and religious leaders will be utilized to raise awareness about the importance of a strong moral character and a morally upright society. The institution of family is the foundation of human society. We envisage a society where the institution of family doesn't become a victim of development rather it supports development and becomes stronger with development. Our religion and culture teaches us to respect parents and elders and to be kind to children and to the young. These values shall be preserved.
Development depends on the values of integrity, commitment, enterprise, teamwork, pursuit of excellence, fairness, respect for merit and performance, learning and innovation, tolerance, positive thinking, passion and leadership. These values don't happen accidentally, these will be nurtured and promoted at all levels, particularly through the education system.